The Lugana Doc Consortium and Its Wines

Lugana is the name of a magical land nestled within the ancient Quadrilateral defence system of the Lake Garda region, bordered by Sirmione and Pozzolengo north and south, Desenzano and Peschiera del Garda east and west (with Lonato del Garda being the firth town). The Lugana wine region encompasses two provinces (Brescia and Verona) and two regions (Lombardy and Veneto) in the morainic plain south of Lake Garda. The white, refined lakeshore native known as Lugana has an illustrious pedigree: although its origin was certified in the 1700′, the viticultural heritage of the area traces back to the Roman Empire. Its unique qualities originate from the beneficial microclimate of the lake, the local clay soil, and a particular variety of grapes named “turbiana” that make it full-bodied, age worthy, and grant it a floral and citrus bouquet. Today Lugana is one of the best-selling Italian wines on the market.

The Trebbiano grapes
Althought production standards foresee the presence of complementary varieties of non-aromatic white grape at a ratio of 10%, today winemakers in the area tend to make Lugana only and exclusively with trebbiano grapes.

This purist approach is possible thanks to a vine that proved to derive from this terroir resources beyond belief for any variety of Trebbiano. The current production standards include five different types of Lugana wine: the basic version, Superior, Reserve, Vendemmia Tardiva (late harvest) and Spumante.

Different types of Lugana wines
The basic Lugana is the driving force behind the entire appellation, its keystone, the quality control gauge for the appellation area: its production range covers almost 90% of the Doc. It’s colour is light straw-yellow with green re- flexes; its aroma is a delicate, subtle mix of floral and almond notes; its taste is harmonious, rich, defined, tight and luscious.

The Lugana Superiore was officially introduced in 1998, and in order to bear this label the wine must age or mature for at least one year after the grapes are harvested. Its profile is more variegated and complex: the colour has a more golden reflexes, with more articulated aromas, hints of wild herbs, chlorophyll, ripe apple, citrus (primarily mandarin), mixed with notes of filbert nuts or spices from the wood used in the aging process (ever less new and green these days, with greater capacity); its mouth feel has greater structure, supported by lively yet supple acidity crossed with a hint of minerals that confer to the wine a very subtle and intriguing “saltiness”.

The Lugana Riserva, introduced with the last revision of the production standards in 2011, is the natural evolution of the Superior: it must age or mature for at least 24 months, 6 of which in a bottle, has brighter colours, more evolved and complex aromas with smoky notes and balsamic reflexes, warmer mineral notes on the palate but otherwise just as enveloping, luscious, and persistent.

First introduced by the standards in 1975 the Spumante version represents a consolidated tradition instead. Today Lugana Spumante is produced using both the Charmat or Martinotti method – autoclave refermentation- and the classic method – bottle refermentation. In the first case, the organoleptic profile is simpler and crisp, with primary notes of citrus and a creamier, more luscious perlage, while in the second is more refined and complex, with a more elegant and dynamic bouquet and a more graceful, crackling perlage.

Know Your Red Wine Varieties

Red wine is more than just red grapes and our article explains four of the most popular varieties in more details so you can talk wine-speak more fluently. For instance, did you know that the darker colour red the bolder the wine? Rosier coloured wines are lighter in texture and flavour, while bolder flavoured wines have a dark red or purple color.

It’s also worth noting that grapes grown in warmer climates will produce wines with bolder bodies, while grapes grown in cooler climates provide lighter wines. Another bit of knowledge surrounding red wine is that bolder wines mean higher alcohol content, due to the high level of tannins in their composition. Lighter wines don’t have such an elevated level of alcohol, because they have fewer tannins in their makeup, and are slightly more acidic than their darker coloured red wine affiliates.

Light wines are commonly known for their red berry flavor, while the deeper, red-coloured wines have a black berry flavor. Read on to find out more about some of the more popular varieties of this delicious fermented, red grape.


Quite commonly called Syrah in Europe, this wine is better known as Shiraz in Australia and is a full-bodied red wine with a dark colour. When you drink it, you’ll really notice that black fruit flavour and might even pinpoint black currant if you have a good palate! You can really notice the tannins in this wine, together with the wine’s often high alcohol content. Some varieties of Shiraz even offer toffee notes due to the fact that they are stored to rest in oak barrels. This is the kind of wine that will successfully accompany meat dishes, especially red meat.


Merlot is a very popular type of red wine because it is relatively easy to drink. It is somewhere in the middle between red wines with bold bodies and the lighter variety, so is a good ‘middle of the road’ wine choice for various occasions. Merlot is a good introduction to red wine because it is so smooth and pleasant to drink. It is less rugged than Cabernet Sauvignon, allowing you to enjoy flavors that include plums, black cherries, and even herbal flavors. You can pair this wine with any food of your choice.

Cabernet Sauvignon

It is considered one of the best red wine varieties in the world, although many wine producers blend it with Merlot and Cabernet Franc to improve its flavor. In many cases, the wine is left to rest in oak barrels which helps create a full body, in which tannins are highly present. When the wine is young, its tannins are rather gripping, this grip fading away as the wine ages. An older Cabernet Sauvignon is a bit softer, but still maintains the characteristic bell pepper flavors. It is best served with dishes of red meat that are prepared in a simple manner.

Pinot Noir

Because it is rather difficult to grow this wine assortment, Pinot Noir is considered a noble wine. This high esteem is given to this variety because it is smooth and never blended – wine producers consider it perfect as is! A bottle of Pinot Noir will surprise you with a fresh and delicate body. It has fruity flavors, plums, cherries, and even strawberries can tempt the palate when drinking this wine. It’s a wine that goes great with dishes containing chicken or lamb, grilled salmon, and even with Japanese dishes, such as sushi.

How Many Types Of Beer Are Available To Drink?

Keep reading to know more about 23 different types of beers.

Originally liquor made from an infusion of malt by fermentation, as opposed to beer, which was made by the same process but flavoured with hops. Today ale is used for all beers other than stout.

It means “old”. A top fermented ale, rich, copper-colored and full-bodied, with a very firm, tannic palate, and usually well-hopped and dry.

Amber Beer:
It is an ale with a depth of hue halfway between pale and dark.

Barley Wine:
Dark, rich, usually bittersweet, heavy ales with high alcohol content, made for sipping, not quaffing.

This is the driest and one of the most heavily hopped beers served on draft. The nose is generally aromatic, the hue amber and the alcoholic content moderate.

A strong dark German lager, ranging from pale to dark brown in color, with a minimum alcoholic content of about 6 percent.

Brown Ale:
They are malty beers, dark in color and they may be quite sweet.

This is a strong ale, dark in color, made with a proportion of highly dried or roasted malts.

Christmas/Holiday Beer:
These special seasonal beers are amber to dark brown, richly flavoured with a sweetish palate. Some are flavoured with special spices and/or herbs.

It simply means – “double bock”. A stronger version of bock beer, decidedly malty, with an alcoholic content ranging from 8% to 13% by volume.

A wheat beer, lighter in body, flavour and alcohol strength.

Ice Beer:
A high-alcohol beer made by cooling the beer during the process to below the freezing point of water (32 degree Fahrenheit) but above that of alcohol (-173 degree Fahrenheit). When the formed ice is removed and discarded, the beer ends up with a higher alcohol-to-water ratio.

India Pale Ale (IPA):
A generously hopped pale ale.

This is a West German ale, very pale (brassy gold) in hue, with a mild malt flavour and some lactic tartness.

Malt Liquor:
Most malt liquors are lagers that are too alcoholic to be labelled lagers or beers.

A malty, pale lager distinguished from the darker, heavier Munich Dark beers by the term “dunkel”.

Oktoberfest/ Maerzen / Vienna:
A copper- colored, malty beer brewed at the end of the winter brewing season in March.

Pale Ale:
This is made of the highest quality malts, the driest and the most highly hopped beer. Sold as light ale or pale ale in a bottle or on draft as bitter.

These are delicately dry and aromatic beers.

A darker (medium to dark reddish brown) ale style beer, full-bodied, a bit on the bitter side. The barley (or barley malt) is well roasted, giving the brew a characteristic chocolaty, bittersweet flavour.

This is a beer brewed from roasted, full-flavored malts, often with an addition of caramel sugar and a slightly higher proportion of hops. Stouts have a richer, slightly burnt flavour and are dark in color.

Sweet stout:
This is also known as milk stout because some brewers use lactose (milk sugar) as an ingredient.

Wheat Beer:
A beer in which wheat malt is substituted for barley malt. Usually medium-bodied, with a bit of tartness on the palate.

I hope you enjoyed to know about different types of beer.


It’s Easy To Find Breweries Near Me If I Do This

You may be saying to no one in particular, “Hey, I really want to find breweries near me, but I have no idea where to look or how to even start searching.” It might be important to start by trying to defining what it is you are looking for in a brewery. Depending on where you look in popular media, breweries tend to be somewhat factor-like & designated specifically for employees. How is a regular ‘Joe’ like you supposed to have access to a brewery, let along take time to find one close-by?

Well, it is important to understand that the concept of a brewery can be the perfect marriage of dedicated beer-making process and top-tier local watering hole. Moreover, the beers being crafted in these places are being meticulously developed by industry professionals who want to provide an experience rather than just an alcoholic beverage. There is also an understanding that the experience at this brewery needs to have the customer appreciate the care & work that went into their beverage.

Perhaps one of the premier ways to find a unique brewery nearby is by thinking a bit outside of the box. For example, the latest (and ridiculously popular) trend in the moviegoing experience is the cinema brewery. True to the idea of providing a second-to-none experience, these theaters readily acknowledge that moviegoer tastes & demands have changed in recent years, and today’s moviegoer wants to experience more than just sweet carbonated drinks, boxed candy, and salty popcorn in terms of available movie food & beverage options. Award-winning craft beer brewed on-site is accompanying more gourmet food options made from fresh, premium ingredients. Movie patrons are also able to either spend their time watching a movie in serious home-like comfort & receive service during a movie, or they can take advantage of an open commons area to congregate & enjoy the same great food & drink without having to buy a movie ticket.

It really is a new day for the modern moviegoer & brewed-beverage connoisseur. Consider, yet again, your original premise of finding, “breweries near me”. Consumers now have many options on this new beverage front, which means added attention by these theaters to provide unique experiences to guests. If you’re searching for what will become your favorite brewery/watering hole, it’s important to simply do an Internet search for your area. As you get results, take a look at what is being offered & see what’s right for you.

Finally, use the most accessible form of modern technology you own in the palm of your hand to your advantage for finding local breweries. Mobile device apps are growing in popularity for those interested in looking beyond the bargain-beer section at the grocery store. With these apps, you can actually calculate what you’ve had to drink, find recipes for home-brewing, and you can even check out ratings for different beers whose characteristics you can filter based on your personal tastes. You can even find out where in town you can find some of these beers ready to serve.

The “breweries near me” quandary no longer has to be your hops-laden albatross. You have choices on how to find amazing craft brew closer than you think, and in some cases, with a little thinking beyond the norm, you can take in a brewery experience you won’t find anywhere else.

Your New Favorite Craft Beer Is Just A Sip Away

Micro brews and small batch beer are quickly gaining more popularity. The momentum in beer lovers choosing tastier and fuller brews has created an entire industry of especially made craft beer. Lovers of beer have a variety of choices and flavors to choose from not seen in any other period. As a result, the industry has exploded and the amount of choice at your local store can be staggering. Don’t worry though, your new favorite brew is just a sip away with this guide.

1. Various beer types

Beer has many different types depending on the fermentation process, how much alcohol it contains, and some other specifications. Ales are full bodied brews that tend to include flavors and spice and may end with a finish of strong hop flavor. They are robust and can come in many different varieties such as Mild, Bitter, Pale Ales, Nut Browns, and many more. Lagers on the other hand are quite different. Most of the popular beers that are mass produced are lagers- which is a German word for ‘to store.’ These brews are crisp and refreshing as a result of being stored at near freezer temperatures for several months. They usually have a smooth finish but can come in darker varieties and unique flavors as well. Then we get to stouts and porters. These are the darker thick beers made with a top fermenting style, they are brewed with roasted malts to give extra aroma, color, and flavor. Stouts are very similar except they are usually not as sweet and do not use malted or roasted barley.

2. Beer Styles

In the way of styles there are many to choose from so you can select the right drink for the occasion or match perfectly with a meal. Ambers are some of the most versatile beers and may have malt or caramel flavors. They come in lager or ale types. Blondes are a very pale and clear beer that tend to be dry with crisper flavors and mild sweetness. Browns are just that, brown or amber color with chocolate or caramel flavors to give it its darker hue. They can have a surprising citrus brightness to them or be strong malty and nutty.

3. Where to find them?

Many local breweries are creating their own variants of micro brews. Regionally there are many different styles of even 1 type or style of beer. The best place to look for these beers is at a store with a great collection or to check out some of the local breweries operating in or around your town. You can even book an informational tour and taste test their newest flavors. Also, restaurants are now commonly brewing their own beer and making it available through food pairings, much like wine. Even more so, cinema breweries have popped up allowing you to sample the freshest and original brews your prefer while sitting back and enjoying a quality movie.

Get out there and try the brews being made around you locally. You won’t regret it.

Fixing Wine Stained Lips and Teeth After Red Wine

Most people have been in this somewhat embarrassing situation before: they’ve had several glasses of red wine-Merlot, Cabernet, take your pick-and the evidence is all over their teeth and lips. Whether enjoying an evening glass at home or while eating out with some friends, people don’t require anything special to rid themselves of wine-stained teeth or lips. A few easy fixes-and some solid preparation-can mean having your cake and eating it too, or, better yet, having your red and drinking it too.


If someone notices they have red teeth as well as red, wine-stained lips, it is likely the byproduct of the wine’s pigments clinging to the plaque on the teeth’s surface, so the easiest fix would be to remember to brush before partaking. It’s also essential to brush your teeth before drinking because wine is very acidic. Enough exposure to the acid in such drinks can wear enamel down, therefore making teeth susceptible to tooth sensitivity or decay. Vigorously brushing to rid teeth of stains could cause further damage, so opt for a soft-bristled brush after a night out.

Additionally, when lips are dry, it’s more likely for them to become stained from red wine as dry lips will absorb more moisture from whatever a person’s drinking, which might manifest as flaky, red lips. Before drinking, take a moment to exfoliate the lips using a clean, dry toothbrush, some water with baking soda mixed in, or a towel for ridding the lips of its dry skin. From there, use a quality lip balm for hydrating the lips, which should lessen the likelihood of stains.

During Drinking

Admittedly, it may not exactly be a refined way of enjoying red wine, but it could at least protect the lips from stains: use a straw, so that the wine bypasses the lips altogether. In case you’re in a restaurant and feel uncomfortable requesting a straw, just ask your waiter for a wine spritzer or a mixer in a tall glass rather than a standard wine glass.


For those in public who notice their lips have stained already, they can ask for a lime or lemon wedge with their drink. It’s easy to discreetly bite into the citrus using the lips, and the high amount of acidity can help dissolve the leftover stains from the wine. If the lime or lemon juice touches the teeth, swish some water around in the mouth to keep the acid from lingering on the teeth’s enamel.

For those who notice they have red lips, there is always embracing the color by making it appear intentional. A fast onceover with some lip balm could add enough shine so the red color looks like gloss rather than wine residue. There is also keeping clear gloss inside a purse to avoid any further embarrassment from wine-stained lips.

Latest Wine Trends in the US and UK

The traditional drink of the UK used to be beer, but now more and more people are drinking wine, according to the Wine and Spirit Trade Association (WSTA). A poll recently commissioned by the WSTA showed than ow 60% of the UK’s adults are wine drinkers and wine is the most popular alcoholic beverage. On average it is estimated that there are more than 30 million regular wine drinkers across the country. In the 25 – 34-year-old bracket,it is their favourite drink.

Consumers prefer white wine and sparkling wines such as Prosecco are growing in popularity. This must be good news for British vineyards. The main grape varieties grown in the UK are Chardonnay and Pinot Noir. Did you know that there are more than 400 vineyards in England and just over 20 in Wales? The climate in Scotland isn’t conducive to grape growing. The USA tops the wine consumers’ polls, followed by France, Italy, Germany and China, with the UK coming in sixth place.

In the US, at least, 20% of people are going out to eat more than they did in the past, and they are spending more on average than they did in the past. A survey has shown that 24% of diners are spending more on wine than they did in previous years.

In the US, wine drinkers spent 4.4% more on wine bought in stores than they did in 2016. Beer sale are falling, but spirits are still popular. Wine drinkers have resisted price increases on their favourite brands, and wine producers have realised that it’s easier to bring a new, more expensive, wine onto the market than to raise the price of well-established wines.

When it is served by the glass in restaurants, more people will buy it, a survey showed. The bottles with screw tops are ideal for pouring it by the glass, and, it seems, that sommeliers are quite happy to serve wine from them. Rather than have a cork stuffed back in a bottle, a screw cap bottle which holds a glass of wine, ensures the it is fresh and not turning to vinegar.

Diners want their wine to complement their food, which is also good news for sommeliers. They are unlikely to be out of a job just yet! The US Wine Market Council conducted a survey which showed that 64% of regular wine drinkers are more likely to order wine with Italian meals. 56% of respondents said that they usually order wine in a steakhouse. Diners tend to choose refreshing wines, such as sparkling ones and light reds. Of course, these also go well with food.

In the US, at least, wine drinkers are buying more wine in cans than they did a year ago. Cans can be consumed in public places, such as beaches, where glass bottles aren’t allowed. However, wine in a can is not very popular in the UK (at least, not yet).
The wine market is changing with the times, so who knows what will be popular next year?

When It Comes to Wine, Do As The Romans Did

There is a renewed interest in the wine-making procedures of the ancient Romans. Historians in Italy have been studying Roman texts dating back at least 2,000 years in order to discover how the ancient Romans made their wine. They cultivated their vines without the use of modern pesticides, herbicides and fertilisers (apart from natural ones, of course). So basically, Roman wine was organic.

These historians are using ancient tools such as the ‘stork’, which was basically a wooden cross with a lead weight on a piece of twine, which they used to find out if holes dug for planting vines were of the optimal depth.They used wood from brooms and strips of cane instead of twine or string to tie their vines to poles.

Roman wine was stored in terracotta pots or amphorae, rather than in barrels, as it is today. These terracotta pots were buried in the ground, up to their necks, and lined with beeswax to ensure that they are impermeable. They were left open to encourage fermentation. Later they were sealed with resin or clay.

The modern historians use unusual grape varieties, such as Nerello Mascalese, Visparola, Racinedda and Muscatedda, and produce seven red wines and one white. Their vineyard is situated in Sicily, close to Catania. The Roman poet, Virgil, and Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella, are the sources they draw on for their viticulture methods. Columella was a Roman soldier before he turned to wine production. He was the foremost Roman writer of texts on agriculture. Before writing his twelve-volume tome on agriculture, he was a tribune in Syria in the first century AD.

It seems that many of the ancient Roman farming methods were still in use in Italy up until the end of the Second World War in 1945. The tools used up until that date were also similar to those used in the Roman Empire. Now, of course, chemicals are used in wine-making and wine production has been mechanised.

Roman wine could be bitter, so it tended to be flavoured with honey. The cheaper wine, minus honey, was for the peasants, while the smoother wine (with honey) was for the aristocrats. Of course, in Britain, mead was the alcoholic drink that was sweetened with honey.

From archaeological evidence, we know that honey mead was drunk on the Asian continent between 6500 and 7000 B.C. Ancient Greeks thought that mead was the drink of the gods. Why not try some and see if you agree?